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百年天博

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        “其天职,盖在阐明文化,发扬国光,以辅助学校教育、社会教育之不逮,所负之使命至重且大也。”一百年前,严智怡在筹划创建天津博物院时曾有如此论断。大抵也从此时开始,中国人对博物馆不再限于简单的仿造,而生发出深入系统的思考。天津博物院也正是在此背景下得到创立。忆其初创,天博在机构组织、文物集藏、办展策略以及宣传教育等诸多方面为天下之先。回首历程,其更在博物馆功能之定位与发挥方面足资今人回味深思。本期出刊正逢天津博物馆成立百年之际,故特辟专栏,集中一批相关主题的优秀作品。其中不乏从历史角度探求博物馆未来发展的讨论文章,更有老一辈文博工作者积多年实践感受而成的心路随笔。笔歌墨舞,难尽百年风华。琼花瑶草,其惟读者择之。

 

 

阐明文化,发扬国光——天津博物馆早期历史回眸
Expounding and Expanding the Nation’s Splendid Culture:
Retrospect of the Early History of Tianjin Museum
陈 卓
Chen Zhuo
(天津博物馆,天津,300201)
(Tianjin Museum, Tianjin, 300201)

内容提要:天津博物馆历史悠久,其前身为天津博物院。天津博物院是在早期教育现代化浪潮驱动下应运而生的我国首家“公办民助”的综合性博物馆。秉承立足区域面向世界的理念,天津博物院以广阔的专业视野,积极探索,在我国率先实施了理事会制度,建立了庞大的典藏和展陈体系,首次采用全景陈列法开中国博物馆陈列历史之先河,并在宣传和教育上取得了突出成绩。天津博物院在中国近代博物馆史上留下了浓墨重彩的一笔,许多开创性的举措至今仍有借鉴意义。
关键词:天津博物院 教育救国 公办民助 理事会制度
Abstract: Tianjin Museum has a long historical standing, which grew out of the Tientsin Museum. The Tientsin Museum, established in response to the wave of the initial stage of educational modernization, was considered to be the frst state-run comprehensive museum in China that was sponsored by private enterprises. As a regional museum, the Tientsin Museum adhered to the concept of keeping international exposure. With extensive and positive professional exploration, it took the lead in carrying out the council regime, set a elaborate system of collection and exhibition, had pioneered the display method of panorama among Chinese museums, and also performed incredibly in the parts of propaganda and education. Tianjin Museum has left such an indelible mark on the modern history of Chinese museums and has taken many pathbreaking measures that are still inspiring today.
Key Words: Tientsin Museum; saving the nation by education; state-run and sponsored by private
enterprises; council regime

 

 

天津博物馆早期董事会制度初探
The Study on the Board of Directors in Early History of Tianjin Museum
郭 辉
Guo Hui
(天津博物馆,天津,300201)
(Tianjin Museum, Tianjin, 300201)

内容提要: 天津博物馆的早期历史可以追溯到1918年6月1日成立的天津博物院。早在1922年天津博物院就成立了董事会,成为中国近代建立理事会制度最早的博物馆。该董事会由博物院章程和董事会章程作为制度保障,并呈送省政府备案,由全体董事大会和常任董事会组成,其组织严密,制度健全,运行有条不紊,对天津博物馆的早期发展起到了十分重要的作用。
关键词:天津博物院 河北第一博物院 河北博物院 董事会制度
Abstract: The early history of Tianjin Museum dates back to June 1, 1918, when the Tientsin Museum was established. It set up the council in 1922, and became the frst museum with council regime in modern China. Regulations of the museum and the council served as the institutional guarantee and were fled on record by provincial government. Through well-structured organization, sound system and methodically operation, the council was constituted by the board of directors and the permanent council, which played an important role in the initial stage of Tianjin Museum.
Key Words: Tientsin Museum; Hebei No.1 Museum; Hebei Museum; council regime

 

 

天津广智馆的创建
The Foundation of Tianjin Institute
刘 翔
Liu Xiang
(天津博物馆,天津,300201)
(Tianjin Museum, Tianjin, 300201)

内容提要:1925年林墨青创办了天津广智馆,它是近代天津较早的综合性博物馆。因相关史料的缺乏,目前有关天津广智馆的研究并不多,尤其涉及广智馆早期创建的论文几乎没有,笔者通过深入挖掘和整理天津博物馆藏相关史料加以研究,力求梳理清楚天津广智馆的创建历程,同时论述早期博物馆对于社会教育事业的意义以及对于社会民众的积极影响。
关键词:天津广智馆 林墨青 近代文博事业
Abstract: In 1925, Lin Moqing founded the Tianjin Institute, which was among the earliest comprehensive museums in modern Tianjin. The lack of relevant historical materials results in the scarce research, and there is even few articles referring to the foundation of Tianjin Institute. Based on fully seeking the materials housed by Tianjin Museum as well as a thorough study on them, the paper manages to clarify the founding course of Tianjin Institute, as well as elaborating on the signifcance of early museums to social education and the positive impact to the public.
Key Words: Tianjin Institute; Lin Moqing; modern cultural heritage and museum enterprise

 

 

严智怡的博物馆科普教育思想与实践——从1919年天津博物院的“观鲸会”谈起
The Practice of Yan Zhiyi’s Educational Thought of Popular Science Education in Museums:
A Topic Begins with the “Whale Show” Held in Tientsin Museum in 1919
侯晓慧
Hou Xiaohui
(天津博物馆,天津,300201)
( Tianjin Museum, Tianjin, 300201 )

内容提要:“科学”是贯穿整个中国近现代思想文化的主题之一。近代以来,伴随西学的传入、中西文化的冲撞与融合,科普教育思想逐渐萌芽与发展。得益于官方及民间共同发展新式教育、提倡科学教育的主张,天津的教育事业在近代中国居于领先地位。一些社会精英通过游学,亲身感受到了国外政治、经济、社会、科学技术的发达,对近代科学技术的传播起到了重要的促进作用,严智怡就是其中之一。他早年在日本学习应用化学,回国后也一直从事工商实业领域的工作。严智怡的科普思想主要是通过兴办天津博物院,运用展览、刊物、社会教育等方式进行实践,推动“科学”成为民众的群体性追求,促进中国近代科普教育的发展。
关键词:严智怡 天津博物院 科普教育
Abstract: “Science” was among the main themes of modern China’s ideological culture. With the import of western thought and the constant sino-west cultural collision and fusion at the time, the thought of popular science education gradually budded and grew. Benefted by the statement of co-developing the new education and science education between government and the folk, Tianjin boasted a leader of education around China. A group of social elites involving Yan Zhiyi who traveled abroad and experienced the more developed foreign politics, economy, society, science and technology, promoted the spreading of modern science and technology. Yan Zhiyi initially studied applied chemistry in Japan and then worked in industrial and economic sectors after coming back to China. His thought on popular science education was mainly about giving an impetus to “science” to become a public pursuit through establishing the Tientsin Museum and carrying out practical activities inlcuding launching exhibitions, publications and social education, which to some extent promoted the evolution of modern China’s popular science education.
Key Words: Yan Zhiyi; Tientsin Museum; popular science education

 

 

卢作孚与中国早期社区博物馆实践
Lu Zuofu and Practice in Early Chinese Community Museums
张文立
Zhang Wenli
(吉林大学,长春,130012)
( Jilin University, Changchun, 130012 )

内容提要:我国近代著名爱国实业家卢作孚是我国博物馆史上一位积极的实践者和先驱者。自20世纪早期起,他就在西南地区进行了一系列博物馆实践活动,其中甚至不乏社区博物馆的因素。这些活动产生了很大影响,奠定了他在我国博物馆史上的重要地位。
关键词:卢作孚 社区博物馆 实践
Abstract: Lu Zuofu, a famous patriotic industrialist in modern China, was also known as an active
practitioner and pioneer in the history of Chinese museums. Since the early 20th century, he had carried out a series of practical activities in southwest China related to museums including community museums. His practices exerted great influence thus mark his name in the history of Chinese museums.
Key Words: Lu Zuofu; community museum; practice

 

 

艺海拾贝记
Tour for Collections
赵春贵
Zhao Chungui
(天津博物馆,天津,300201)
(Tianjin Museum, Tianjin, 300201)

内容提要:用集腋成裘来形容博物馆收藏比较恰当,用艺海拾贝比喻博物馆征集比较形象。世人认为博物馆有许多谜,因为陈列展览中围绕文物展品有许多故事。作为亲历者,拾取几粒彩贝,写下这文字,回眸一些如烟往事,以此献给天津博物馆百年诞辰。
关键词:博物馆 征集 故事